The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change defines this concept as a change in climate that alters the world's atmosphere, producing damaging effects in the composition, ability to recover and the productivity of the natural ecosystems. In order to combat it, a fundamental goal is to achieve stability and to control the emission of greenhouse gases.
Being aware of the impacts produced from industrial activity (responsible for 2% of the greenhouse gases emissions attributable to human activity), we have developed a climate change strategy that allows us to engage in initiatives that tackle the problem on two fronts: 1) impact and profitability - concerning actions that are directly related to the impacts of our operations, which are approached from the perspective of risk management, and controlled and mitigated through our management system - and 2) involvement and recognition, with a focus on initiatives of raising awareness and training our employees and disseminating environmental good practices and actions.
Most of our greenhouse gases emissions are produced from burning fuels, which is why it is essential to increase the efficiency, reduce the consumption and carry out an effective management of this aspect. On this front we have a renewal plan for our fleet of aircraft, which ensures that we operate with modern airplanes that have latest-generation engines and that we include efficiency criteria in the decisions taken in relation to the Company's fleet. In terms of emissions per passenger-kilometer, this allows us to become one of the most efficient airlines in the world's air transport industry.
In addition to this, since 2012 in Peru and since 2014 in Colombia we have neutralized the emissions from our terrestrial operations through local reforestation programs.
During 2015, the fuel-efficiency programs of LAN and TAM were standardized under one single program called LATAM Fuel, which now manages all of our fuel-saving initiatives. These initiatives include operational and technological projects that vary in scope, from making our operations more efficient to improving air traffic management and the incorporation of structural developments in our aircraft. The results of implementing these initiatives during 2015 is a saving of more than 38 million gallons of fuel, which means we avoided the emissions of 360,000 tons of CO2, as well as achieving a reduction in noise and an improvement in quality of the local skies.
We are committed to the industry's target of reaching a zero increase in carbon emissions by 2020, and we are therefore performing various actions to reduce our carbon footprint. The development of sustainable alternative forms of energy is an important subject for the air transport industry, and as LATAM Airlines Group is in support of these efforts, we will continue to work on the development and the future use of sustainable alternative fuels.
STANDARDS and CERTIFICATIONS
LATAM Airlines Group's Environmental Management System meets the requirements specified by the ISO 14001 standard for terrestrial operations and the IEnvA (IATA Environmental Assessment), which was developed together with IATA for and by airline companies particularly for the management of their air operations. They establish efficiency programs with regard to relevant environmental aspects, operational control systems, optimization of processes and management of risks related to the operation's emissions. During 2015 we achieved two major milestones: LAN CARGO became the first air cargo carrier with operations based at the Miami International Airport to receive the international certification of ISO 14001:2004. We also reached the second stage in the IEnvA - the highest level obtainable in this system - for our international flights operated by LAN from Chile.